Saturday, 26 May 2018

Do's and don'ts in Diet for Hypertension

Some types of hypertension can be managed through lifestyle and dietary choices, such as engaging in physical activity, reducing alcohol and tobacco use, and avoiding a high-sodium diet.

Reducing the amount of salt


Average salt intake is between 9 grams (g) and 12 g per day in most countries around the world.

The WHO recommends reducing intake to under 5 g a day, to help decrease the risk of hypertension and related health problems.

This can benefit people both with and without hypertension, but those with high blood pressure will benefit the most.

Moderating alcohol consumption


Moderate to excessive alcohol consumption is linked to raised blood pressure and an increased risk of stroke.

The American Heart Association (AHA) recommend a maximum of two drinks a day for men, and one for women.

The following would count as one drink:
  • 12 ounce (oz.) bottle of beer
  • 4 oz. of wine
  • 1.5 oz. of 80-proof spirits
  • 1 oz. of 100-proof spirits

A healthcare provider can help people who find it difficult to cut back.



Eating more fruit and vegetables and less fat


People who have or who are at risk of high blood pressure are advised to eat as little saturated and total fat as possible.

Recommended instead are:

It is important to avoid trans-fats, hydrogenated vegetable oils, and animal fats, and to eat portions of moderate size.

Managing body weight


Hypertension is closely related to excess body weight, and weight reduction is normally followed by a fall in blood pressure. A healthy, balanced diet with a calorie intake that matches the individual's size, sex, and activity level will help.

The DASH diet

The U.S. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recommends the DASH diet for people with high blood pressure. DASH, or "Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension," has been specially designed to help people lower their blood pressure.

It is a flexible and balanced eating plan based on research studies sponsored by the Institute, which says that the diet:
  • lowers high blood pressure
  • improves levels of fats in the bloodstream
  • reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular disease
Some evidence suggests that using probiotic supplements for 8 weeks or more may benefit people with hypertension.

Friday, 25 May 2018

Signs and Symptoms of Hypertension

Signs

Blood pressure can be measured by a sphygmomanometer or blood pressure monitor.

Having high blood pressure for a short time can be a normal response to many situations. Acute stress and intense exercise, for example, can briefly elevate blood pressure in a healthy person.

For this reason, a diagnosis of hypertension normally requires several readings that show high blood pressure over time.

The systolic reading of 130 mmHg refers to the pressure as the heart pumps blood around the body. The diastolic reading of 80 mmHg refers to the pressure as the heart relaxes and refills with blood.

The AHA (American Heart Association) 2017 guidelines define the following ranges of blood pressure:
Systolic (mmHg)Diastolic (mmHg)
Normal blood pressureLess than 120Less than 80
ElevatedBetween 120 and 129Less than 80
Stage 1 hypertensionBetween 130 and 139Between 80 and 89
Stage 2 hypertensionAt least 140At least 90
Hypertensive crisisOver 180Over 120
If the reading shows a hypertensive crisis when taking blood pressure, wait 2 or 3 minutes and then repeat the test.

If the reading is the same or higher, this is a medical emergency.

The person should seek immediate attention at the nearest hospital.



Symptoms


A person with hypertension may not notice any symptoms, and it is often called the "silent killer". While undetected, it can cause damage to the cardiovascular system and internal organs, such as the kidneys.

Regularly checking your blood pressure is vital, as there will usually be no symptoms to make you aware of the condition.

It is maintained that high blood pressure causes sweating, anxiety, sleeping problems, and blushing. However, in most cases, there will be no symptoms at all.

If blood pressure reaches the level of a hypertensive crisis, a person may experience headaches and nosebleeds.

Complications

Long-term hypertension can cause complications through atherosclerosis, where the formation of plaque results in the narrowing of blood vessels. This makes hypertension worse, as the heart must pump harder to deliver blood to the body.

Hypertension-related atherosclerosis can lead to:

Regular blood pressure testing can help people avoid the more severe complications.

Thursday, 24 May 2018

Causes of Hypertension

The cause of hypertension is often not known.

Around 1 in every 20 cases of hypertension is the effect of an underlying condition or medication.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of high blood pressure because the kidneys do not filter out fluid. This fluid excess leads to hypertension.

Risk factors

A number of risk factors increase the chances of having hypertension.

Age:

Hypertension is more common in people aged over 60 years. With age, blood pressure can increase steadily as the arteries become stiffer and narrower due to plaque build-up.

Ethnicity: 

Some ethnic groups are more prone to hypertension.

Size and weight: 

Being overweight or obese is a key risk factor.

Alcohol and tobacco use: 

Consuming large amounts of alcohol regularly can increase a person's blood pressure, as can smoking tobacco.

Sex: 

The lifetime risk is the same for males and females, but men are more prone to hypertension at a younger age. The prevalence tends to be higher in older women.

Existing health conditions: 

Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and high cholesterol levels can lead to hypertension, especially as people get older.

Other contributing factors include:

  • physical inactivity
  • a salt-rich diet associated with processed and fatty foods
  • low potassium in the diet
  • alcohol and tobacco use
  • certain diseases and medications

A family history of high blood pressure and poorly managed stress can also contribute.

Below is a 3-D model of hypertension, which is fully interactive.

Explore the model using your mouse pad or touchscreen to understand more about hypertension.

Wednesday, 23 May 2018

Treatment methods of Hypertension

While blood pressure is best regulated through the diet before it reaches the stage of hypertension, there is a range of treatment options.

Lifestyle adjustments are the standard first-line treatment for hypertension.

Regular physical exercise


Doctors recommend that patients with hypertension engage in 30 minutes of moderate-intensity, dynamic, aerobic exercise. This can include walking, jogging, cycling, or swimming on 5 to 7 days of the week.

Stress reduction


Avoiding stress, or developing strategies for managing unavoidable stress, can help with blood pressure control.

Using alcohol, drugs, smoking, and unhealthy eating to cope with stress will add to hypertensive problems. These should be avoided.

Smoking can raise blood pressure. Giving up smoking reduces the risk of hypertension, heart conditions, and other health issues.


Medications


People with blood pressure higher than 130 over 80 may use medication to treat hypertension.

Drugs are usually started one at a time at a low dose. Side effects associated with antihypertensive drugs are usually minor.

Eventually, a combination of at least two antihypertensive drugs is usually required.

A range of drug types are available to help lower blood pressure, including:

The choice of drug depends on the individual and any other conditions they may have.

Anyone taking antihypertensive medications should be sure to carefully read labels, especially before taking any over-the-counter (OTC) medications, such as decongestants.

These may interact with medications used to lower blood pressure.

Tuesday, 22 May 2018

Fast Facts on Hypertension

Here are some key points about hypertension. 



Monday, 21 May 2018

What is hypertension?

High blood pressure is a common condition in which the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.
Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure.
You can have high blood pressure (hypertension) for years without any symptoms. Even without symptoms, damage to blood vessels and your heart continues and can be detected. Uncontrolled high blood pressure increases your risk of serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke.
High blood pressure generally develops over many years, and it affects nearly everyone eventually. Fortunately, high blood pressure can be easily detected. And once you know you have high blood pressure, you can work with your doctor to control it.


Friday, 18 May 2018

Structural Cardiac Intervention

Structural intervention is a general term that is used to describe minimally invasive techniques for treating various heart conditions. Structural intervention procedures are able to treat patients with:
  • Conditions of the aortic, mitral or tricuspid valve which are deemed to be too high-risk for conventional major surgery (percutaneous valve interventions).
  • Holes in their hearts (atrial and ventricular septal defects) that need to be closed (percutaneous ASD/VSD closure).
  • Leaking around prosthetic valves (paravalvular leak closure)
  • Atrial fibrillation and an inability to take blood-thinning agents (left atrial appendage occlusion).
  •  Heart failure (parachute device implantation).

Imaging techniques, such as echocardiography, CT, and MRI have enabled development of newer transcatheter approaches for cardiovascular diseases.





Thursday, 17 May 2018

World Hypertension Day

"Know your number" has been the theme of this day so that awareness about high blood pressure will be spread all around the globe.
Know your number and care for your heart 


Wednesday, 16 May 2018

Masked Hypertension

Masked Hypertension is the case where the blood pressure level is normal in a clinical setting or office but high in home. 10% of the general population is affected by masked hypertension. Masked hypertension is important because it cannot be diagnosed by routine medical examination but can be identified only when the case is adverse which causes increased target organ damage and cardiovascular events. The characteristics observed on an individual affected by masked hypertension are young age, male sex, stress, smoking, and drinking, increased physical activity during the day, etc., Even treated hypertensive people have the risk of masked hypertension and in children, masked hypertension may be the initial stage of sustained hypertension.


Tuesday, 15 May 2018

White Coat Hypertension

White coat Hypertension is commonly referred to as white coat syndrome. This is an effect where the person's blood pressure is high in a clinical setting whereas in home the blood pressure is normal. This is because of anxiety or stress in a medical environment which leads to this cause. This situation leads to a tough point to identify whether the person is affected by high blood pressure or not. White coat hypertension is not that common but it is also significant to occur. The important cause of white coat hypertension is anxiety, thus, reducing anxiety reduces most of the problems that are harmful to health.



Friday, 11 May 2018

Target Organ Damage

Target organ damage usually refers to the damage caused to the organs wherever the circulatory system feeds. The main target organs are kidney, heart, brain, and eyes. Hypertension causes early changes in organ systems as left ventricular hypertrophy, proteinuria, renal failure, retinopathy and vascular dementia. There are many steps involved in the act of target organ damage as platelet activation, endothelial activation, increased thermogenesis, changes in the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system (RAAS) and collagen turnover.
  • Track 1-1 Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
  • Track 2-2 Proteinuria and Renal Failure
  • Track 3-3 Retinopathy
  • Track 4-4 Vascular Dementia



Thursday, 10 May 2018

Cerebrovascular Diseases

Cerebro refers to the brain and vascular refers to arteries and veins. Cerebrovascular means blood flow to the brain. Cerebrovascular disease is a combination of defects in two places as brain and blood. Cerebrovascular diseases include all disorders that affect the brain temporarily or permanently. Cerebrovascular diseases include stroke, stenosis, deep vein thrombosis, atherosclerosis, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and aneurysm. Stroke occurs commonly with little or no warning. The most common form of stroke is ischemic stroke and the dreadful stroke is known as hemorrhagic stroke. TIA is a temporary event and it doesn’t cause any permanent damage to the body. When there is a build-up of fat and cholesterol in the arteries it leads to plaque formation. This plague is known as atherosclerosis and when this blockage is severe it is known as stenosis. An aneurysm is an effect which develops because of HTN or atherosclerosis in which the blood vessel to the brain weakens which causes bulging up of the blood vessel in that area.

  • Track 1-1 Stroke and its Types
  • Track 2-2 Stenosis
  • Track 3-3 Deep Vein Thrombosis
  • Track 4-4 Atherosclerosis
  • Track 5-5 Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
  • Track 6-6 Aneurysm


Wednesday, 9 May 2018

Cardiovascular Diseases and Types

One of the strongest muscle in the human body is the heart which is just the size of a fist. In general, the heart is a pump that supplies blood to the entire human body. The average heart beat per minute is 70 times and this rate can double during exercise or during extreme emotions. This heart is vulnerable to breakdowns and failures. This heart failure leads to numerous diseases together known as Cardiovascular diseases. Some of the CVD are coronary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, congenital heart disease and inflammatory heart disease.

  • Track 1-1 Coronary Heart Disease
  • Track 2-2 Hypertensive Heart Disease
  • Track 3-3 Inflammatory Heart Disease
  • Track 4-4 Rheumatic Heart Disease
  • Track 5-5 Congenital Heart Disease
  • Track 6-6 Global Cardiovascular Risk Assessment